Franklin – Hermeneutics Class Notes

Hermeneutics
Class Notes

Professor: Pastor Al Franklin
Shasta Bible College
Redding, California
www.shasta.edu

These are Class Notes for Hermeneutics from Shasta Bible College. In the RTF version, it is 94 pages long.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Hermeneutics given less and less attention
1.2 Human Reason- Colossians 2:8
1.3 Subjective Feeling- Colossians 2:18
1.4 Objective Revelation-2nd Timothy 4:1-4
1.5 Biblical Authority- 2nd Timothy 3:16-17
1.5.1 The origin & flow of Bibhcai authority
1.5.11 God inhered authority
1.5.12 Christ
1.5.13 Holy Spirit
1.5.14 Apostle
1.5.15 Bible
1.5.16 Things man is forbidden to do to God’s complete revelation
1.5.16.1 Cannot add to the Bible
1.5.16.2 Cannot subtract from the Bible
1.5.16.3 Cannot change the Bible

2.  Importance of Hermeneutics
2.1 The Definition of Hermeneutics
2.2 The Purpose of Hermeneutics
2.3 The Methods of Hermeneutics
2.4 The Relationship of Hermeneutics to the Other Sciences (Text 20).
2.4.1 Criticism
2.4.1.1 Historical or higher criticism – origination style, age, authorship, vocabulary, genuiness, authority
2.4.1.2 Textual or lower criticism – determination text
2.4.2 Hermeneutics – interpretation
2.4.3 Exegesis – explanation and application of hermeneutics
2.4.4 Systematic Theology – systerilization
2.4.5 Homiletics – organization- science of preaching
2.4.6 Exposition – proclamation – teaching the truth
2.5 The Value of Hermeneutics
2.5.1 To build the Christian life
2.5.2 To bridge the gap in culture
2.5.3 To bypass the errors of the past and present
2.6 The Preparation for Hermeneutics
2.6.1 Certain Requirements
2.6.1.1 Spiritual]
2.6.1.2 Intellectual
2.6.1.3 Education
2.6.2 Certain Research Tools

3. The History of Hermeneutics
3.1 OId Testament and Jewish Views
3.1.1 Biblical (Gen 1:1; 2:15-17; 6:12-14; 12:1-3)
3.1.2 Extra-Biblical
3.2 The Development of the Jewish Canon
3.2.1 Structure of the Jewish Canon
3.2.2 What is the Law As Defined by Rabbinic Interpretation?
3.2.3 The Function of the Torah Historically
3.2.4 The Earliest Principles of Torah Interpretation (Hermeneutics)
3.2.5 The Maccabean Revolt -An Epoch Making Event
3.2.6 R abbi Johanan ben Zacchai
3.2.7 Rabbi Akiva ben Joseph (50 CE – 135 CE)
3.2.8 Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai
3.2.9 JudahHa-Nasi (Judahthe Prince) (135-219 CE)
3.2.10 Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki) (1040 – 1105 CE)
3.2.11 Maimonides (Rambam; Rabbi Mosheben Maimon) (1135-1204 CE)
3.2.12 Baal Shem Tov(the Besht, Yisrael ben Eliezer) (1698 – 1760 CE)
3.2.13 Maggid of Mezritch (lit., “the preacher of Mezritch”): R. DovBer (d. 1772)
3.2.14 Rabbinic Interpretation
3.2.15 The Talmud
3.2.16 The Septuagint Translation Of The TANK
3.2.17 Canon Lists
3.2.17.1 The Jewish Canon list
3.2.17.2 The Septuagint Canon List
3.2.18 The Jewish interpreters were
3.2.18.1 Hillel (70 B.C. -110 A.D.) (Chaff, vol. I, pp 160-162)
3.2.18.2 Shammai (c.50 B.C – c.30 A.D.) (ha-Zekan, “the Elder”)
3.2.18.3 Hillel & Shammai
3.2.18.4 Philo (20 B.C.- 54 A.D.)
3.2.18.5 Ezra (Esdras)
3.2.18.6 Aristobulus of Paneas(160 B.C.)
3.3 New Testament and Christian Views
3.3.1 Christ
3.3.2 Apostles
3.3.3 Post-Apostolic Fathers (Early & Late Church Fathers)
3.3.3.1 100-200 A.D.
3.3.3.2 200-450 A.D.
3.3.3.2.1 Alexandrian School
3.3.3.2.2 Antiochian School
3.3.3.2.3 Western School
3.3.3.2.4 Constantine(306-337 a.d.)
3.3.3.3 Famous Fathers
3.3.3.3.1 Origen (158-ca253)
3.3.3.3.2 Ambrose (340-397)
3.3.3.3.3 Jerome (340-419)
3.3.3.3.4 John Chrysostom (347-407)
3.3.3.3.5 Augustine (354-430)
3.3.3.4 Early Church Fathers
3.3.3.4.1 Clement of Rome (92 -101)
3.3.3.4.2 Ignatius of Antioch
3.3.3.4.3 The Epistle of Barnabas
3.3.3.4.4 Justin Martyr
3.3.3.4.5 Irenaeus of Symma
3.3.3.4.6 Tertullian of Carthage
3.3.3.4.7 Alexandrian Fathers
3.3.3.4.7.1 Pantaenus of Alexandria
3.3.3.4.7.2 Clement of Alexandria
3.3.3.4.7.3 Origen (ca. 185-254)
3.3.3.4.8 Antiochian Fathers of Syria
3.3.3.4.8.1 Dorotheus
3.3.3.4.8.2 Lucian
3.3.3.4.8.3 Diodorus
3.3.3.4.8.4 Theodore ofMopsuestia
3.3.3.4.8.5 John Chrysostom of Constantinople (ca. 354-407)
3.3.3.4.8.6 Theodoret (386-4580)
3.3.3.5 Late Church Fathers
3.3.3.5.1 Jerome (ca. 347-4190)
3.3.3.5.2 Augustine (354-4300)
3.3.3.5.3 John Cassian(ca. 360-435)
3.3.3.5.4 Eucherius of Lyons (c a. – 450)
3.3.3.5.5 Adrian of Antioch (a.d. 435)
3.3.3.5.6 Junilius (a.d 550)
3.3.4 Middle Ages
3.3.4.1 Gregory the Great (540-604)
3.3.4.2 VenerableBede(637-734)
3.3.4.3 Alcuin of York, England (735-8041
3.3.4.4 Rabanus Mauras
3.3.4.5 Rashi Shilomo son of lssac (1949-1105)
3.3.4.6 Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)
3.3.4.7 Joachim of Flora (1132-1202)
3.3.4.8 Steven Langton(ca. 1155-1228)
3.3.4.9 Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
3.3.4.10 Nicholas of Lyra (1279-1340)
3.3.4.11 John Wycliff(ca. 1330-1384)
3.3.5 Reformation 1517-1600
3.3.5.1 Martin Luther (1483-1546)
3.3.5.2 Calvin (1509-1564)
3.3.5.3 John Reuchlin
3.3.5.4 Desiderius Erasmus (1560)
3.3.5.5 Philip Melanchthon(l 497-1560)
3.3.5.6 Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
3.3.5.7 William Tyndale (ca. 1494-1536)
3.3.5.8 Anabaptist movement(1525)
3.3.5.8.1 Conrad Grebel
3.3.5.8.2 Felix Manz
3.3.5.8.3 Georg Balurock
3.3.5.8.4 Balthasar Hubmaier
3.3.5.8.5 Michel SatUer
3.3.5.8.6 Pilgram Marpeck
3.3.5.8.7 Menno Simons
3.3.5.8.8 Council of Trent (1545-1563)
3.3.6 Post-reformation 1600-1750
3.3.6.1 Socinian school
3.3.6.2 Pietist
3.3.6.3 Men
3.3.6.4 Confirming and Spread of Calvinism
3.3.6.4.1 Westminster Confession(1647)
3.3.6.4.2 Francis Turretin (1623-1687)
3.3.6.4.3 Jean-AIphonse Turretin (1648-1737)
3.3.6.4.4 Johann Emesti (1707-1781)
3.3.6.5 Reactions to Calvinism
3.3.6.5.1 Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609)
3.3.6.5.2 Jakob Boehme (1635-1705)
3.3.6.5.3 Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705)
3.3.6.5.4 August H. Francke (1663-1727)
3.3.6.5.5 John Wesley (1703-1791)
3.3.6.6 Textual and Linguistic Studies
3.3.6.6.1 Louis Cappell
3.3.6.6.2 Johann A. Bengel (1687-1752)
3.3.6.6.3 Johnarm J. Wettstein (1693-1754)
3.3.6.7 Rationalism
3.3.6.7.1 Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
3.3.6.7.2 Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
3.3.7 Modem Era 1750-1973
3.3.7.1 Roman Catholic
3.3.7.2 Liberalism – The Bible contains the word of God
3.3.7.2.1 Human reason
3.3.7.2.2 Supernatural
3.3.7.2.3 Naturalistic
3.3.7.2.4 Accommodation
3.3.7.2.5 Inspiration
3.3.7.3 Nineteenth Century
3.3.7.3.1 Subjectivism
3.3.7.3.1.1 Friedrich D.E. Schleiermacher (1768-1834)
3.3.7.3.1.2 Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
3.3.7.3.2 Historical Criticism
3.3.7.3.2.1 Benjamin Jowett (1817-1893)
3.3.7.3.2.2 Ferdinand C. Baur (1792-1860)
3.3.7.3.2.3 David F. Strauss (1808-1874)
3.3.7.3.2.4 Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918)
3.3.7.3.2.5 Adolf von Harnack (1851-1930)
3.3.7.3.3 Exegetical Works
3.3.7.3.3.1 E.W. Hengstenberg
3.3.7.3.3.2 Carl F. Keil
3.3.7.3.3.3 Franz Delitzch
3.3.7.3.3.4 H.A.W. Meyer
3.3.7.3.3.5 J.P. Lange
3.3.7.3.3.6 Frederic Godet
3.3.7.3.3.7 Henry Alford
3.3.7.3.3.8 Charles J. Ellicot
3.3.7.3.3.9 J.B. Lightfoot
3.3.7.3.3.10 B.F. Westcott
3.3.7.3.3.11 F.J.A Hort
3.3.7.3.3.12 Charles Hodge
3.3.7.3.3.13 John Albert Broadus
3.3.7.3.3.14 Theodor Zahn
3.3.7.3.3.15 J.A Alexander
3.3.7.3.3.16 Albert W. Barnes
3.3.7.3.3.17 John Eadie
3.3.7.3.3.18 Robert Jameison
3.3.7.3.3.19 Richard C. Trench
3.3.7.4 Twentieth Century
3.3.7.4.1 Liberalism
3.3.7.4.1.1 Nels Ferre
3.3.7.4.1.2 Harry Emerson Fosdick
3.3.7.4.1.3 W.H. Norton
3.3.7.4.1.4 L. Harold DeWolf
3.3.7.4.2 Neo Orthodox
3.3.7.4.2.1 Karl Barth (1886-1968)
3.3.7.4.2.2 Emil Brunner (1889-1966)
3.3.7.4.2.3 Reinhold Neibuhr (1892-1971)
3.3.7.4.2.4 Rudolf Bultmann (1884-1976)
3.3.7.4.3 The New Hermeneutic
3.3.7.4.3.1 Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
3.3.7.4.3.2 Ernest Fuchs
3.3.7.4.3.3 Gerhard Ebeling
3.3.7.4.3.4 Hans-Georf Gadamer
3.3.7.5 Neo-orthodoxy – The Bible becomes the word of God
3.3.7.5.1 Subjective
3.3.7.5.2 Fallibility of Bible
3.3.7.5.3 Inspiration of Bible
3.3.7.5.4 Christological
3.3.7.5.5 Mythological
3.3.7.5.6 Dialectic
3.3.7.6 Neo-evangelicalism – Allow room for error
3.3.7.7 The New Testament always interprets the Old.
3.3.7.8 Dispensationalism is there suit of hermeneutics.
3.3.7.9 Covenant Theology makes its own hermeneutics.
3.3.7.10 The Allegorical Method
3.3.7.10.1 History
3.3.7.10.2 Definition
3.3.8 The Literalistic Method
3.3.8.1 History
3.3.8.2 Definition
3.3.9 The Naturalistic Method
3.3.9.1 History
3.3.9.2 Definition
3.3.10 Neo-Orthodox Interpretation
3.3.10 1 History
3.3.10.2 Definition
3.3.11 Devotional Interpretation
3.3.11.1 History
3.3.11.2 Definition
3.3.12 Ideological Interpretation
3.3.12 1 History
3.3.12.2 Definition
3.3.12.3 Feminist Theology
3.3.12.4 Marxist or Liberation Theology
3.3.12.5 Deconstiuction
3.3.13 Inspiration
3.3.13.1 Science
3.3.13.2 Separation and Evangelism

4. Principles of Hermeneutics
4.1 The Text
4.1.1 Its Inspiration
4.1.2 Its Illumination
4.1.3 Its Authority
4.1.3.1 The reason
4.1.3.2 The result
4.2 The Technique
4.2.1 The Rules
4.2.1.1 Literal
4.2.1.1.1 Its definition
4.2.1.1.2 Its distinction
4.2.1.1.2.1 Inaccurate statements
4.2.1.1.2.2 Accurate statements
4.2.1.1.3 Its delineation
4.2.1.1.4 Its direction
4.2.1.2 Grammatical – Tools that take apart — (wrenches, pliers and sockets)
4.2.1.3 Historical – Disassembles (shovels, pick and map)
4.2.1.4 Contextual – Measure (level, square, tape, plumb)
4.2.2 The Results
4.2.2.1 Consistency of interpretation
4.2.2.2 Progressive nature of revelation
4.2.2.3 A check on imagination
4.2.2.4 The distinction of Scripture maintained
4.2.2.5 Everything essential for the Christian life is clearly revealed.
4.2.2.6 Obscure passages will be seen in the light of the plain.
4.2.2.7 Ignorance on some passages will be acknowledged.
4.2.2.8 The faith and practice of the interpreter will be based upon the solid foundation of facts and should result in consistent Godly living.

5. Application of Hermeneutics
5.1 To Prophecy
5.1.1 The Problem
5.1.1.1 Allegorical or mixed views
5.1.1.2 Literal view
5.1.2 The Principles
5.1.2.1 Compare Scripture
5.1.2.2 Distinguish between interpretation and application
5.1.2.3 Observe time distinctions and time references
5.1.2.4 Watch for twofoId application
5.1.3 The purpose of prophecy is basically threefold:
5.1.3.1 To warn
5.1.3.2 To guard
5.1.3.3 To strengthen
5.1.4 The Bible is different.
5.1.5 The literal meaning
5.1.6 Common sense
5.1.7 Historical
5.1.8 No limitation
5.1.9 Double reference
5.1.10 Predictive or didactic
5.1.11 Past or future
5.1.12 In relation to Israel
5.1.13 Christ is central
5.1.14 Israel and the Church are separate
5.1.15 Preconceived interpretation of prophecy
5.1.16 New dimension
5.2 To Parables
5.2.1 The Problem (Zuck pp. 194-226, 198, 199, 200, 204-210)
5.2.1.1 Definition
5.2.1.2 Composition
5.2.1.3 Purpose (Zuck p. 197)
5.2.1.4 The results (Zuck pp. 204, 208-209)
5.3 To Types (Text pp. 169-193)
5.3.1 The Problem
5.3.1.1 Definition (person, event and thing) (Text pp. 172-175)
5.3.1.2 Kinds
5.3.2 The Principles
5.3.2.1 A type must be of divine origin
5.3.2.2 Observe the historical meaning
5.3.2.3 There must be a resemblance between the type and antitype
5.3.2.4 Be careful in the doctrinal use of types.
5.4 To Numbers
5.4.1 The Problem
5.4.2 The Principles
5.5 To Present Issues
5.5.1 The Problem
5.5.1.1 Jehovah’s Witnesses
5.5.1.2 Christian Science
5.5.1.3 Healing and ‘seed-faith” – Oral Roberts
5.5.1.4 Roman Catholic
5.5.1.5 Charismatic Movement
5.5.1.6 Seventh Day Adventists

6. General Principles for Interpretation
6.1 The Bible is Authoritative
6.2 Scripture best interprets Scripture
6.3 Only the Holy Spirit can give us God’s meaning
6.4 Interpret personal experience in light of Scripture not Scripture in light of experience
6.5 Biblical examples are authoritative when supported by a command
6.6 The primary purpose of the Bible is to change lives not increase knowledge
6.7 Each Christian must interpret the Bible for himself

7. Principles for Historical Interpretation
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Although Church history is important it is not decisive for interpretation
7.3 Scripture should be interpreted in the light of Biblical history
7.4 Scripture is progressive
7.5 Historical facts or events become symbols of spiritual truth only if the Scriptures say so
7.6 Presuppositions
7.6.1 Historical background
7.6.2 The Bible is historical
7.6.3 Location, time, circumstances
7.6.4 The Word is Living
7.7 Know the author or speaker
7.7.1 Who was the author?
7.7.1.1 What was his habitual mode of thought?
7.7.1.2 What was his disposition?
7.7.1.3 What was his temperament?
7.7.1.4 What were the motives that controlled his life?
7.7.1.5 What was his character?
7.7.1.6 What was his profession?
7.7.1.7 What was his language?
7.7.1.8 What was his manner?
7.7.1.9 Was he different than his peers?
7.7.2 Who was the speaker?
7.8 Odd circumstances surrounding the writing
7.8.1 By whom did the author originally intend his work to be read or heard?
7.8.2 Why did the author write it?
7.8.3 Were there any special circumstances?
7.8.4 What frame of mind did the author have?
7.8.5 In what period of the author’s life was the work written?
7.9 The social aspect
7.9.1 Geographical
7.9.1.1 Climate
7.9.1.2 Productions
7.9.1.3 The land
7.9.2 Religious
7.9.3 The political situation

8. General Principles for Theological Interpretation
8.1 Scripture must be interpreted grammatically before theological
8.2 Doctrine is only Biblical when it sums up all that Scripture says about that doctrine
8.3 If two doctrines appear to contradict each other, assume that both are true
8.4 Implied teaching is only Biblical when related verses support the passage
8.5 The unity of Scripture
8.5.1 Both contain the same doctrine of redemption.
8.5.2 The true Israelite is one not of flesh but of faith.
8.5.3 Most of the differences between the people of God in the Old and New Testaments were privileges and duties in terms of relativity, not absolutes.
8.5.4 The New Testam ent is a commentary on the Old.
8.5.5 The OId Testament is the key to correct interpretation of the New.
8.5.6 Both the Old and New Testaments are important and neither one should be minimized.
8.6 The unifying principle of Scripture is God’s glory, not redemption.
8.7 Clarity of Scripture
8.8 Make Christ central.
8.9 Revelation is accommodated.
8.10 Israel and the Church are separate distinct entities.
8.11 One must ask the question. Why is this here?
8.12 Dispensations
8.13 Scripture interprets Scripture.
8.14 The doctrine of progressive revelation
8.15 The analogy of faith
8.16 The unity of the meaning of Scripture
8.17 The rule of the simplest alternative
8.18 Interpretation and application

9. The Problem and Solution of the Promise of His Return
9.1 The passage
9.2 The problem
9.3 The solution

10. Principles used in the Solution
10.1 Grammatical
10.1.1 Lexical
10.1.1.1 Etymology (in order of appearance)
10.1.1.2 Synonyms: no help
10.1.1.3 Current usage: The words were checked in
10.1.1.3.1 An interlinear lexicon,
10.1.1.3.2 Vine’s Expository Dictionary,
10.1.1.3.3 A Manual Greek Lexicon (Abbott-Smith),
10.1.1.3.4 Word Studies by Vincent,
10.1.1.3.5 Word Pictures in the New Testament by Robertson, and
10.1.1.3.6 The Analytical Greek Lexicon.
10.1.2 Syntax
10.1.2.1 No special idioms; the word hetoimazo – etoimazo had
10.1.2.2 No unusual word order
10.1.2.3 Nothing out of the ordinary as far as clauses, sentences, cases, or prepositions
10.1.3 Usus Loquendi
10.1.3.1 No figurative language was used.
10.1.3.2 The words are all-common and have very traceable meanings in the same gospel. The words were used in a general sense.
10.1.3.3 The connection between the words were checked in the above mentioned manuals.
10.1.3.4 The writer defined his terms in the rest of the writings.
10.1.3.5 The immediate context was used.
10.1.4 No figurative language was used.
10.2 Historical
10.3 No special emphasis of social circumstances
10.4 Theological: nothing special
10.5 None of the special rules for the interpretation of prophecy apply.

11 Conclusion

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I am a pastor and missionary of Fundamental Baptist Church in Mexico City, Mexico. I am also the webmaster of this and several other websites (both in English and Spanish).