David Cox – Angelology Sample Chapter 2 Creation and Existence of Angels

Chapter 2. The Creation and Existence of Angels

02.01 The Arguments Against the Existence of Angels
02.02 The Creation of Heaven and of Angels
02.03 The Theory of Expansion (or Gap Theory).
02.04 The Abode of the Angels
02.05 Their Position in relation to Man and Jesus
02.05.01 Their Position in relation to Man
02.05.02 Their Position in relation to Jesus Christ
02.06 The Generalized Teaching of the Scripture.
02.07 The Argument of Logic.

The Arguments Against the Existence of Angels 02.01

The arguments against the existence of angels are very poor in general. Although the Bible speaks of angels as persons, those who deny the existence of angels usually recognize them only as “extensions of God.”

This is a truth, they are extensions of God, but being useful to God does not necessarily mean that they cannot be people, with body and will. Normally, opponents who disqualify the personality and bodily presence of angels have another reason to support this position. These are the same who argue against the personality of the Holy Spirit trying to assign all spirits to simply be extensions of a person, and not persons themselves.

We see that the Sadducees (Acts 23:8) did not believe in the existence of angels, interpreting evil as an impersonal force. Likewise Rationalists, Socinians, and Universalists teach that angels are only impersonal forces of a semi-divine energy or evilness. Teaching that they can be good or bad factors that cause diseases, natural disasters, help, etc. but they do not want to admit that they can be real people, moral agents making their own decisions (obedience or disobedience).

The Bible shows that these servants of God (including evil angels, demons) are separate characters from the person of God, and God holds them accountable for their decisions and actions.

The Creation of Heaven and of Angels 02.02

The reformers consider the date of creation of the angels, precisely on the first day of creation. There is evidence that they were part of the army of heaven (Ps 103:21; 148:1-5). Also Gen. 1:1; 2:1; Exodus 20:11.
The Scriptures speak of eternity past “before the foundation of the world” as an infinite time without interruption, in which nothing existed except what is not created, God, and to speak of this “infinite without interruption” existence is to refer to what is “not created” (that is, God Pro. 8:22; Ps. 90:2; John 1:1), these texts express it better than any word we could use. In speaking of the existence of angels before the first day of creation, we do not mean to imply that they are eternal and infinite as God (as part of the “not created”). The truth is that we do not know when God created the angels, but we do know that they were created, and in the creation of the world and of outer worldly things, or before, the angels were already present. We say “or before” because when God made the creation, the angels rejoiced, implying that when God created the universe, they observed because they already existed in that moment.

It seems that the angels already existed when God made the earth (Ps. 148:2; Job 38:4-7). We do not have to limit the principle of creation to the first day. Even Gen. 1:1 speaks of when God began to create the universe as we know it, and this is also related to us by God. We understand that Genesis 1 and 2 are an account of the beginning for us, as human beings it is our beginning, and God does not even try to explain to us the beginning of angels, because it was not his purpose when he gave us Genesis.

Neh 9:6 Thou, even thou, art LORD alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all things that are therein, the seas, and all that is therein, and thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth thee.

It clearly says that God made the heavens and his army or host (of angels). Then the angels were created beings, they are creatures. We see that angels were created by Jesus Christ (Col. 1:16; Gen. 2:1; Exodus 20:11; John 1:1-3).

Col. 1:16 For in him were all things created, those in the heavens and those on the earth, visible and invisible; be thrones, be domains, be principalities, be powers; everything was created through him and for him.

It seems that the angels witnessed the creation of the world.

Ps. 148:2-5 Praise ye him, all his angels: praise ye him, all his hosts. 3 Praise ye him, sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars of light. 4 Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens. 5 Let them praise the name of the LORD: for he commanded, and they were created.

From verse 1 to verse 6 he speaks of the heavens where the angels dwell (“heaven of heaven”). Although it may refer to the place where they were created and normally (good angels) dwell, in verse 6 he says that he made them “forever and ever” and then speaks of his decree not being broken.

One day, God himself is going to destroy the earth and the heavens, and make a new heavens and earth. We do not know if at that time, the heaven that is the dwelling place of the angels, of God, and the saved ones with Jesus will be destroyed, because from this place will descend to the new earth and the new heavens, so then it does not seem likely. It will descend to the new earth. Most probably we should understand the concept of “heaven where God dwells” as being God’s presence there, with his servants and saved saints. The “place” of heaven can change location from where it is now to the new earth. It is like the king of England. The king lives in the palace, but if he moves to a country home for the summer, the palace becomes that new place, because technically the palace is where he is residing, whatever it is and wherever it is.

But anyway, here it is talking about the angels and the place of their residence that is heaven. All this was created by God and established by Him for His pleasure.

The angels existed before the creation of the world, because in the moment of creating it and even before, they were praising God. It seems that they witnessed the creation of the world. Part of his praise is that God commanded and creation takes form. So at some point, God created angels as kind of witnesses of Creation, they themselves also being part of Creation.

1Tim 6:16 Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen.

From these two passages, we deduce that only God is immortal. The angels had their moment of creation, and they are not immortal. The point is very important because in treating the divinity of Jesus, we see that he existed before the creation of the universe, before the creation of the angels, and before the creation of every created thing. This means that Jesus is not a created being, he CANNOT be only an angel of God, but He is very God.

Mormons teach that Jesus and Satan are brothers, spiritual children of God the Father, in the form of angels. Jesus is an angel in the sense that he is a messenger between God and humanity, but he is not an angel in the sense of a created being. It is the same God acting as a messenger between the Lord and men (the concepts of priest and intercessor apply here). The issue is to deny divinity to the Lord Jesus as the Mormons teach, or believe in Christ’s full deity as the Bible teaches.

Likewise, the Jehovah’s Witnesses take Jesus as a created being, as an angel, which is a mixture of the human and the divine. They use the terms “Jehovah” and “Almighty God” to refer to the true God with all that is God, and mistakenly understand that Jesus is a “god” (with a lowercase letter as in their altered version of the Bible in John 1:1), as something inferior to God the Father, the full godhead. Although the JWs emphatically declare that they do not accept the concept of the Trinity and therefore they insist to belong to the monistic position (God is one). But they do not explain how Jesus can be a lesser god than the Father, but that there is only one God, and that Jesus is not a false god. So their position is quite contradictory and confusing, and indeed, to understand this, one has to have a convincing explanation about the co-equality of the beings that make up the Trinity.

Job 38:4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding. 5 Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it? 6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof; 7 When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

The “sons of God” here probably refers to the angels who rejoiced at being witnesses to creation (Ps. 148:5).
Heb. 2:7 says that when Jesus took a human body, this made him a little less than an angel. Therefore, God considers that angels as greater or higher than men (2Pe 2:11). But we believe that in eternity, man will take a higher position than angels, then it probably means that angels are superior to man in physical strength, at least before man receives his glorified body. But Jesus did not die for any angel, so we conclude that God esteems or loves men more than angels. That is the greater value of mankind than angelkind.

“Angels constitute a created Host in distinction from a Race; each angel being a direct creation of God, not brought into being by propagation (successive production) as in the human family.” The Study of Angelology by Alfred Thompson Eade – Fleming H. Revell Company

The number of angels is unknown, but it must be very huge, like an army (Dan 7:10, Mat 26:53, Heb 12:22).

The Theory of Expansion (or Gap Theory). 02.03

I do not believe in the Gap Theory. For the Gap Theory to work, there has to be a large amount of time. But Genesis’ presentation of the events is that they happened in six days. Six days which are of 24 hours. We can guess and presume that these “days” were large periods of time. But however we take them, we have to be consistent. Therefore, Adam and Eve lived through at least 2 of these days. The sixth day and the seventh. So if one of these “days” was a billion years, then we can say Adam was created in the last seconds of that day, and it was a year. But he also lived through the seventh day, which should be equal, another billion years.

Gen 5:3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth: 4 And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters: 5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died.

So the entire lifespan of Adam was only a total of 930. The first day of Adam could not have been very long, because Seth was born when Adam was 130. If we are completely generous and say each of the six days were 100 years, and all the transpired after the fall was a total of 30 years, we still do not have the Gap that the Gap Theory needs. It is just not there.

Also consider Exod 31:15-17 where the Bible instructs Israel to work six days and rest the seventh as holy unto the Lord, which in the last verse…

Exod 31:17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.

The point is that as God did his work in six 24 hour periods, and rested the seventh day, so we are to do the same. So if each of these periods, or “days” is a billion years, thus we work our entire lives and never reach a Sabbath rest.

That doesn’t make sense if these “days” are large periods of time. They have to be only 24 hour days.
There is a theory that questions whether the days of the first week are literal days (24 hours) or are much longer times. Part of the issue that involves this theory is that they propose that there was a world before the creation of the present world, and propose a rebellion of Satan that left the ancient world empty and destroyed. The interesting detail here is that in Gen. 1:2, where it says that after God made heaven and earth, it “was without form and void.”
According to this theory, there is a time period between Gen. 1:1 when God created the universe ex nihilo (out of nothing), and there was a destruction by the rebellion of Satan, and then a restoration (Job 38:4-7), and later Gen. 1:2 or the rest of the days of creation.

Nothing that God does can be disorderly and empty. These words mean the absence of form, in a state of confusion and disorder, nonexistent or empty. It speaks more of a “primal state” than a destroyed state. Flour, eggs, and oil are the primal ingredients of a cake, but they are not destroyed necessarily. Although a Hebrew word can have different meanings, it does not mean that all those meanings apply each time the word is used. Simply the idea is that the earth had no form, and did not have all the integrating elements yet. When an artisan begins to make a work with clay, he begins only with clay that still has no shape. The point is that the talent of the artist transforms the element without form until it becomes beautiful. There is no obligation that God has to start with something already elaborate and enjoyable. When God made Adam, he started with a little dust from the earth. God can start with something disorganized and without form, and achieve beautiful and perfect works. As for the woman, she started with something he had previously created. We cannot put limits or restrictions on God simply because we want it. Those who follow this theory insist that there must have been a war with Satan to make the earth a disaster that God had to rebuild.

To shape the time concept, take the word “day” as a period of time rather than a lapse of 24 hours. The Bible thus uses the word “day” sometimes. But when he speaks of the “day of the Lord,” for example, a certain number is never mentioned with the word “day.” That is, when God wants us to understand that it is a certain time period, then he mentions it like this “the day of (something).” When it refers to a day, for example, second day, first day, etc. then it refers to a lapse of 24 hours. He never uses phrases like “it is the seventh day of the Lord.” Because the metaphor would be violated.

Now the argument against it is the use of Saturday, which literally means 7 or a set of 7s. In this case we talk about 49 weeks, and it is literally “49 sevenths” or “49 sevens”. But even with “Saturday” we see a difference as with “day.” Saturday (literally “seven”) is used to clearly describe a period of one week or it refers to the summation of that period, the last day, Saturday.

But the grammatical support is overwhelming, because the word “day” in Genesis 1 and 2 represents periods of 24 hours, and if you insist on something different to accommodate it to evolution or a supposed period that allowed Satan to rebel and destroy the world, it will be only speculative and unreasonable. In other words, it is as unnecessary as it is useless to rely on that theory to try to explain what God has told us in His Word.

Part of this theory considers that a race of human beings existed before the creation of Adam in which they propose that the demons were the “cursed” beings of that race. Of course, there can be no evidence of this. It exceeds the limits of speculation. Jesus clearly stated that Adam was the first man (Matthew 19:4), and the evidence is overwhelming about the theory of the dead returning to earth to walk like ghosts (the fallen angels). What happens to

Heb 9:27 And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment if we declare that there were ghosts, the spirits of dead men walking the earth, having sex with living men or even demons doing this? To fabricate a whole civilization growth up, developing and then falling and being utterly destroyed is difficult to swallow.

Pember takes Acts 23:9 as an argument to establish that there is an essential difference between “angels” and “spirits” that we do not believe is sustainable.

The Abode of the Angels 02.04

References such as “the angels in heaven” (Mark 13:32) and an “angel from heaven” indicate that their normal abode is in heaven. When an angel appears on earth, it is outside of its natural environment. For reasons of their ministry and reason for existing, angels may come to earth, but their natural abode is in heaven. We can be assured that angels serve in heaven and on earth (Isaiah 6:1-2, Dan 9:21, Rev 7:2, 10:1).

It is interesting to see that the Bible gives the earth to Satan. That is, the earth and all its treasures (gold, silver, precious jewels) is in some way property of Satan. Satan is the god of all this, and therefore, he has spoiled it when he himself fell. We remember that we brought nothing into the world (Eccl 5.15, Job 1:21), and we will take nothing with us (Psalm 49:17, Luke 12:20, 1Tim 6:7). Also, God has clearly said that He will destroy this universe (world and heavens) and that He will make a new heaven and a new earth. We understand that the present world will disappear, and nothing will be transferred from here to there except souls of people and angels. Chapter 11 of the book of Numbers (the rebellion of Korah) tells us that the earth opened its mouth and swallowed Korah and his hosts alive to hell (Sheol, the place of punishment for the wicked). Taking this as a reference and since a pit or hole is always “down”, we consider that hell is inside the earth. [For more explanations about hell, seol, paradise, etc., please see my book “The Punishment of God.”] Even the place of present torment is temporary, and after God Judges the Wicked, they will be cast into the lake of fire, which seems to be as if it exists now, (maybe our own sun?). (But the new heavens and earth are not now existing, but rather God will create them on that day.)

Satan and the demons spoiled everything, they find themselves on earth, in “their element,” “their environment.” For the fallen angels, heaven is not their abode, but it is not specifically stated what their current abode is. Revelation speaks of a plague of demons loosed from the abyss (Rev 9:1-21) like Satan who is loose at this time (Rev. 20:3), then Satan is possibly “the angel of the Abyss” spoken of by Rev. 9:11. Another version is that there is about this verse is that there is an angel (good) in charge of taking care of those beings in the abyss, so that they do not escape.

But we are pilgrims in this world that is the territory of Satan. That is why the Bible places so much emphasis on the fact that we should not cling to the goods of this world as our beloved possession or our joy.

Here it is not very clear what the Bible teaches about fallen angels. There are two possibilities:(1) that a group of angels (we presume the most evil and powerful) who are confined “permanently” (until the great judgment and then next to fire punishment) in the abyss, and maybe there are other fallen angels who are free in the world. The place of their prison is Tartarus (2Pe 2:4 in Greek use Tartarus and Jud.1:6). The Greeks considered Tartarus as a place of punishment below and worse than hell. It is difficult to understand why God chose this word to use in the Bible, and we suppose that the concept associated with Tartarus at that time in classical Greek was what God meant or at least close to it. It does not explain much this verse (2Pe 2:4) that uses “Tartarus.” The idea here is that the evil angels are there waiting (Luke 8:31, Rev 9:1-3, 11), and in the last times of Revelation will be loose on earth (Rev. 9:1-3, 11, 14; 16:14).

The other idea is that all angels are physically confined to the abyss for the time being, and they have a presence on earth by humans who pay attention to their influences and prompting. Here in Mexico there is a serious problem with extortion, and most of these are through cell phones in the prisons, which use these devices to extort people. Even in prison (restricted in movement), they have bad influence and cause problems to the world outside. The police say, “When they call you, just hang up the phone.” This explains why the Bible has the idea that a demon has no body while Jesus comforted his disciples after the resurrection that he was not an evil spirit, because he had a body, and invited them to touch him.

Jude 1:6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.

We understand when he says that the evil angels left their abode in heaven, it is that they came to earth to be imprisoned in darkness (under the earth is where the present seol is) and in eternal prisons (if imprisoned, they will never be free, although the jail will be changed from the seol to the lake of fire).

“While the meaning of this passage is under discussion, it shows us that the angels have nothing but a domain or area of ​​authority assigned to them, but they also have a dwelling place.”

“The most likely reference here is to the angels (‘sons of God,’ compare Gen. 6:4, Job 1:6, 2:1) who came to earth and messed with women. This interpretation is expounded in Enoch’s pseudo-epigraphic book (7, 9:8, 10:1; 12.4), of which Judas quotes in verse 14, and was very common in the intertestamental literature and of the church fathers ( example, Justinian Apology 2.5). These angels ‘did not keep their positions of authorities’ (ten heauton archen). The use of the word arche for ‘government,’ ‘domain,’ or ‘sphere’ is not common but appears to be the intention here (compare BAG, p 112). The implication is that God assigned the angels specific responsibilities (arche, ‘domain’) and a specific place (oiketerion). But for his rebellion, God has kept or reserved (tetereken perfect time) these angels fallen in darkness and in eternal chains waiting for the final judgment. Apparently fallen angels are in bondage while others are free and active among humanity as demons.” J.- Hampton Keathley III (Bible.org)

Their Position in relation to Man and Jesus 02.05

Their Position in relation to Man 02.05.01

According to Heb. 2:7-9, God created man a little lower than angels. Then angels are higher in intelligence, power, and movement, but even so, angels serve men as ministering spirits (Heb 1:14). Even though angels are greater than men, it is forbidden for men to worship angels.

But the man who is in Christ is greater than the angels because of their spiritual union with Christ (Eph 1:20-22; 2:4-6; Heb 2:9). Christians will share the throne of God one day, and will judge the angels (1 Cor 6:3).

Angels brought food to Elijah while fleeing from Jezebel after his victory on Mt. Carmel 1Ki 19:5-6.

Their Position in relation to Jesus Christ 02.05.02

According to Heb. 2:7-9, God created man a little lower than angels. Then angels are higher in intelligence, power, and movement, something, but even so, angels serve men as ministering spirits (Heb 1:14). Even though angels are greater than men, it is forbidden for men to worship angels.

But the man who is in Christ is higher than the angels because of their spiritual union with Christ (Eph 1:20-22; 2:4-6; Heb 2:9). Christians will share the throne of God one day ruling with God, and men will judge the angels (1 Cor 6:3).

The Generalized Teaching of the Scripture. 02.06

34 books of the 66 books of the Bible mention or teach about angels.

Although the Bible does not tell us about the time or details of its creation, the Bible is clear that there is a species of beings lesser than God, and above man, which serves God as messengers to men, so the word for them is “messengers” which in Greek and Hebrew is our word “angel.” We should clarify that there are not two different words one for “messenger” and one for “angel”, but they are the same word is used for both Angel and Messenger (in Greek they are the same root word, and in Hebrew they are the same root word).. Our versions have the two words (“angel” and “messenger”) from the translators’ understanding which is according to the context. We must change our understanding to see the two words as the same concept, a messenger is an angel, an angel is a messenger.
Even so, it is very difficult sometimes to distinguish which God is presenting in a specific moment. When God came down to see the activities of Sodom, He stopped to visit with Abraham before going to Sodom. This “angel of the Lord” received worship to himself, and we can presume that this “angel” had to be the pre-incarnate Jesus Christ or God in some form, because no angel except God would receive worship for himself.

But it does not clarify if his companions were men of God (human beings) in a mission of God, or spiritual beings who came down from heaven. We presume that they were celestial beings, but even so the Bible is not specific about the details of these characters. In the temptation of Jesus (Matthew 4), he also says that the angels came to minister to him later. This can be heavenly beings or it can be believers who God sent to serve Jesus in this moment.

The point of our observation is not to amplify the speculations and doubts, but to close them down somewhat. God has a class of beings who are his servants, and God is not very specific about details of them, and so God wants the matter to remain so. If we are saved, we are his servants also. We blend in with the celestial messenger service, and become one with them in a way. The concept is therefore like a class of servants, some celestial and some human.

They serve their Lord. That is the idea of an angel-messenger. This is not to presume we somehow have some special powers or something. With whatever capacities and talents God has given us, we serve Him.

We have to see that when the Bible speaks of “angels” or an “angel”, it speaks of something that is a person who has personality, will, and activity. Basically, someone under God’s disposition, doing His will, and His work. In the sight of God, being a servant, being a messenger is what is important, and his character as a citizen of heaven or a human being is not so much in sight.

The Argument of Logic 02.07

There is an argument from logic that says that there must be a class of beings between man and God to facilitate communication between the two. Remember that the Gnostics declared God as so holy as not being able to connect with mankind, so there were emanations from God towards sinful man, and they placed Jesus Christ as one of these emanations.

While we assert that truly God is holy, God is not limited, much less self-limiting. If God wants to appear from heaven before a person, he can do that. He did that with Jesus at one point. Jesus did that with Paul on the Emmaus road. God did that with Moses. While these are very special occasions, even more special is when God takes a human up to heaven (John and Paul). But these are instruments or methods that God can and does use, but God more frequently uses speaking to his prophets and men of God to repeat the message to the people. God’s Word, the Scriptures, are they messages written down.

So, we see that God is holy, and it is of great importance when God opens heaven to communicate with a man, as in the case of Moses on Mount Sinai where the very presence of God came down to speak face to face with Moses. Okay, but there are also occasions that are not of this importance in which God wants to communicate with man about events in his life. We can see that God sometimes uses human beings, but also God uses a class of spiritual beings (angels) when he does not want to appear personally to one of his servants.

Even on one occasion God used an ass to talk to someone, but ultimately, it is logical that God has at his disposal a special class of beings to do his work, his mission, and communicate his will to human men. These are angels. The class per se are celestial beings. But Bible language is such that humans can be God’s messengers also without doing violation to the concept of “an angel.” We should understand this point from an exposition point of view, but we should be careful to separate “messenger” (man) from “angel” (celestial being) because many people understand it this way, and we don’t want to confuse but to accurately understand.